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# How Slot RNGs Work, on the Example of Red White & Blue by IGT

In previous articles on Casinoz, we considered various matters of slot machine construction and operation, trying to dispel the most popular myths and misconceptions. We gave recommendations on choosing slots, described betting strategies, explained bankroll management basics, etc. However, we still do not think that all readers fully understand how modern slots work, how winning combinations are formed, and why you can trust games from famous software providers.

In this piece, we will define step by step the essential aspects. To clarify, we will take IGT's Red White & Blue slot as an example.

This slot is available in most land-based casinos in the United States. Also, we will show the calculations by Michael Shackleford, the author of the reputable website Wizard of Odds. We hope this information will fill some gaps in your knowledge about slot machines.

## How Casino Slots Work

We will start by reminding you that the basis of any modern slot machine is a random number generator (RNG), which determines the outcome of each spin. No pattern or algorithm is used in its work.

So, each round is unpredictable and independent of other spins. If you play on machines from reliable manufacturers and independent auditors monitor the slots, you can be sure that no one knows what combination will land on the reels in the next spin.

After a player makes a bet and starts a new gaming round, the RTG produces a number for each real, which defines the display of various characters on it. In other words, the result is known only at the moment after the player presses the spin button.

## Red, White & Blue Slot by IGT

We now turn to Red, White & Blue to clarify some details from its example. The paytable of this slot machine is as follows.

 WIN 1 COIN 2 COINS 3 COINS Red 7, white 7, blue 7 2400 4800 10,000 Red 7, red 7, red 7 1199 2400 5000 White 7, white 7, white 7 200 400 600 Blue 7, blue 7, blue 7 150 300 450 Any 3 sevens 80 160 240 1 bar, 2 bar, 3 bar 50 100 150 3 bar, 3 bar, 3 bar 40 80 120 2 bar, 2 bar, 2 bar 25 50 75 Any red, any white, any blue 20 40 60 1 bar, 1 bar, 1 bar 10 20 30 Any 3 bars 5 10 15 Any 3 reds 2 4 6 Any 3 whites 2 4 6 Any 3 blues 2 4 6 Blank, blank, blank 1 2 3

In the Red, White & Blue gaming machine, the RNG can create 64 possible outcomes. Each of them means the display of a particular character on a separate reel. Here is the table illustrating the procedure:

 STOP NUMBER REEL 1 REEL 2 REEL 3 1 2 bar 2 bar 2 bar 2 2 bar 2 bar 2 bar 3 2 bar blank 2 bar 4 blank blank blank 5 blank 3 bar blank 6 3 bar 3 bar 3 bar 7 3 bar blank blank 8 blank blank blank 9 blank blank blank 10 blank white 7 white 7 11 white 7 blank white 7 12 white 7 blank white 7 13 white 7 blank white 7 14 white 7 1 bar white 7 15 white 7 1 bar white 7 16 white 7 1 bar white 7 17 blank 1 bar blank 18 blank blank blank 19 blank blank blank 20 1 bar blank 1 bar 21 1 bar blue 7 1 bar 22 1 bar blue 7 1 bar 23 blank blue 7 1 bar 24 blank blue 7 1 bar 25 blank blue 7 blank 26 blue 7 blue 7 blank 27 blue 7 blue 7 blank 28 blue 7 blank blue 7 29 blue 7 blank blank 30 blue 7 blank blank 31 blue 7 2 bar blank 32 blank 2 bar 2 bar 33 blank blank 2 bar 34 blank blank 2 bar 35 2 bar 3 bar blank 36 2 bar 3 bar blank 37 blank blank 3 bar 38 blank blank blank 39 3 bar blank blank 40 blank blank blank 41 blank blank blank 42 blank red 7 blank 43 blank red 7 red 7 44 blank red 7 blank 45 red 7 blank blank 46 blank blank blank 47 blank blank blank 48 blank blank blank 49 blank blank 3 bar 50 blank 3 bar 3 bar 51 3 bar 3 bar 3 bar 52 3 bar 3 bar blank 53 3 bar blank blank 54 blank blank 2 bar 55 blank 2 bar 2 bar 56 2 bar 2 bar 2 bar 57 2 bar blank blank 58 blank blank blank 59 blank 1 bar 1 bar 60 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 61 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 62 1 bar 1 bar 1 bar 63 blank blank blank 64 blank blank blank

### Red White & Blue Slot Gaming Process

After the customer clicks on the spin button, the RNG determines three numbers, and corresponding characters appear on the reels.

• For example, if you have numbers 1, 2, and 3, you will see a combination of three bars.
• If the generator gives you 5, 10, and 15, a combination of "blank," "white 7", and "white 7" lands on the reels.

As you can see from the table, some of the generated numbers produce the same symbols on the same or even different reels. Also, look at the number 45. It is the only number that allows you to get the red seven on the first reel, starting the two highest combinations in the Red White & Blue slot.

The same goes for 10 on the second reel (white 7) and twenty-eight for the third reel (blue 7). As you can see, the most valuable combination (red, white, and blue sevens) can be formed only if the RNG gives out 45, 10, and 28 in this precise order.

On some slot machines in some countries, there is a plate with data on the so-called "stop numbers" for all symbols on each reel. You can count them yourself, but we did it for you.

### Weights for the Red White and Blue IGT Slot

Look at the table:

 STOP NUMBER REEL 1 REEL 2 REEL 3 Red 7 1 3 1 White 7 6 1 7 Blue 7 6 7 1 3 BAR 6 7 5 2 BAR 7 6 9 1 BAR 6 8 9 Blank 32 32 32 TOTAL 64 64 64

### Red White and Blue Slot Return Rates

Here is one more helpful table:

 COMBINATIONS PAYOUTS NUMBER ODDS PAYBACK Red 7, white 7, blue 7 2400 1 0.000004 0.009155 Red 7, red 7, red 7 1199 3 0.000011 0.013721 White 7, white 7, white 7 200 42 0.000160 0.032043 Blue 7, blue 7, blue 7 150 42 0.000160 0.024033 Any 3 sevens 80 1199 0.004574 0.365906 1 bar, 2 bar, 3 bar 50 180 0.000687 0.034332 3 bar, 3 bar, 3 bar 40 210 0.000801 0.032043 2 bar, 2 bar, 2 bar 25 378 0.001442 0.036049 Any red, any white, any blue 20 113 0.000431 0.008621 1 bar, 1 bar, 1 bar 10 432 0.001648 0.016479 Any 3 bars 5 7977 0.030430 0.152149 Any 3 reds 2 335 0.001278 0.002556 Any 3 whites 2 1036 0.003952 0.007904 Any 3 blues 2 756 0.002884 0.005768 3 blanks 1 32,768 0.125000 0.125000 Other 0 216,672 0.826538 0.000000 TOTAL 262,144 1.000000 0.865761

The lower right cell shows the return of the Red White & Blue. In percentage terms, it is 86.58%. In the long run, the machine pays \$86 out of every \$100 total bet amount.

1. Calculations were made for one coin.
2. If you put two coins, you will get the same results.
3. But three coin wagers increase the payback to 87.47% because the two highest combinations feature increased payouts.

## Summary

You should also know that the term "random number generator" is somewhat incorrect. RNGs used in slots are pseudo-random as they are based on complex algorithms.

If you are interested in this subject matter, read more about RNGs in the gambling industry

The following articles on Casinoz will describe other aspects of slot machine mechanics and mathematics.

Modern slots are based on very complex random number generators. They produce unpredictable numbers assigned to certain symbols appearing on slot reels.

They are pseudo-random, but their algorithms are highly intricate. The results of their work are practically unpredictable.

Slots from the most reputable gambling software developers are fair. They work on certified random number generators and are checked by reliable independent auditors.

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