Long gone are the days when Indians hunted in the Paleface Reservation, looked after their conquerors with hating eyes and longed for their deaths. Modern descendants of free nomads gladly welcome guests from all over the world, because they come with money in exchange for a shot of adrenaline at the table or machine. Casino controlled by Indians is very advanced and promising field of activity with annual sales of billions of dollars.
The history of Indian casinos began in 1975 with the Oneida tribe, whose reservation is located in New York State. This tribe was very poor and they had to give up a lot, including the fire department, even though fires have occurred frequently. In one of them two Indians died. Their relative graduated from Harvard arranged in a trailer the game bingo and allowed to raise rates above the level set by the legislation. To the claims of the authorities, he said that inside the Reserve, these laws do not apply. While they were bickering, new gambling house originated in the Seminole tribe in Florida. The visitors were not only Indians, but also white people.
When the district attorney banned gambling houses in Oneida tribe, they submitted. But it didn't work wit the Seminoles. They sued the prosecutor, and began the world famous process "against the Seminoles Butterworth" which the Indians won. This judicial precedent let them open their casinos in other tribes. In 1987, the U.S. Supreme Court stated that state governments have no right to prohibit the Indians gaming business. The exceptions were the only states any form of gambling was prohibited. Moreover, the authorities were ordered to stop taxation of income tax from the reserves.
It's easy to guess that the movers and shakers of Nevada gambling could not allow a freely developed new competitor. They began to lobby for their interests in Congress, and after years the Act regulating Indian gaming was accepted. It said that state governments should regulate this area. This was expressed primarily in the fact that the state gave permission to open each new casino. Some regions tried to refuse granting these permissions, but after numerous trials they decided that much more profitable to force the Indians to share the profits with the state. Today, many Indian casinos give a significant share of their profits to the state treasury.
Now in the U.S. more than 200 of 562 tribes have opened official casinos. Their annual profits is billions of dollars. Only in 2008, Indian casinos' income was twenty-six billion dollars. We should note that acvcording to Congress, this money should be spent on social services tribes like various allowances, construction of housing and centers of Indian culture. Young Indians can study in prestigious institutions. Standard of living tribes owning casinos is totally different from the rest of the Indians still living in poverty.
interests of indian casinos are regulated by the National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA founded in 1985. It works with the federal government and the Congress and contributes to improving the life of the Indian population.
Indians themselves almost do not play in the casinos and over ninety percent of the profits comes from other visitors. It's quite symbolic and can be regarded as a kind of compensation for confiscated land and years of humiliation.