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Everyone knows that none of the mathematical roulette systems is profitable. All of them do not ensure that you will make a profit over the long run. Sooner or later, you will fail. This is often accompanied by huge losses and disappointment.

But how is it related to visual ballistics, which belongs to the physical systems? Is there any evidence that it can help to constantly earn while playing roulette? Do you know how to do this? Our article covers exactly the issues mentioned above.

## What is Visual Ballistics?

Casino owners are so sure that the outcomes of spins are random that they even allow customers to place bets while the ball is spinning. Nowadays researchers are well aware of all physical quantities that determine outcomes: ball speed, wheel speed, friction force. As soon as a croupier spins a ball, the gameplay becomes strictly deterministic. It cannot be changed. Actually, if you know all factors, it should be possible to calculate the outcome. This is exactly the task of visual ballistics.

However everything is not so simple. Any spin consists of two different phases. During the first phase the ball rolls smoothly and evenly on the ball track. Its motion is easily predictable at this stage. However it is followed by the chaotic phase: the ball rolls down to the bottom of the bowl and bounces off one of the deflectors in random directions. Then it can bounce a little and fall into one of 37 pockets. How is it possible to predict an outcome in such cases? It turns out that this is possible.

## Is It Possible to Master Visual Ballistics?

On the Internet there are many sites making an impression that it is quite possible to master visual ballistics. Some tutorials for this system are even available. Basically, this can be true, but even if this is so, you have to go a long way of losses and disappointments. However the common sense dictates that it is not necessary to spend the years of your life on mastering visual ballistics for one simple reason: the wheel speed at casinos constantly grows. Is it difficult to learn how to use this system? Let's take a look at the example of one of the most famous experts on the visual ballistics Christian Kaisan.

## Christian Kaisan

Christian Kaisan spent 3 years to implement this idea. In the early eighties this idea came to his mind and he spent three years (from 1981 to 1984) to collect information, analyze it, and get prepared to gamble. During that time he did not gamble. He attended casinos about three hundred times for three years. He studied different bowls and balls, influence of deflectors on bouncing, and calculated a lot. As soon as he could evaluate the impact of all these factors, he placed his first bet. Christian Kaisan won millions of dollars in the next 20 years using his technique of visual ballistics.

Christian Kaisan was well prepared. Now he is able to notice the dealer’s rhythm, predict a pocket into which a ball will fall, calculate the ball speed and wheel speed. As soon as he started gambling, he could notice that his training had been in vain. During the first six weeks he won 70,000 German marks. And it was only the beginning. He started travelling around the world and visited all the major casinos in the world. And he succeeded in winning! In Australia Christian Kaisan won 500 thousand dollars for three days. In Copenhagen he could hit his highest jackpot that reached 126 thousand dollars. Christian Kaisan attended many casinos in the United States, especially in Las Vegas, and won almost everywhere.

Christian Kaisan said his success was based on two-thirds of abilities and skills, and one-third of the perception. He could percept how a dealer was spinning a ball, its force, and sense of time. This feeling appears only after many years of observations made at the roulette table.

## Principles that Make Roulette Predictable

Most people believe that the outcome of each spin is random. However this is not true, since it is almost impossible to construct a roulette wheel that generates indeed unpredictable outcomes. A significant number of professional players find, understand, and use the defects to make a profit. To be sure, casinos are trying to react to such activities of players using modern technologies, but outcomes on the roulette wheel are still governed by physical laws. So, it will always be possible to beat the house.

Roulette manufacturers report on their websites that their wheels generate spins absolutely randomly. However behind closed doors they admit that even completely new wheels demonstrate predictable patterns over the long-run that can be used by gamblers. And they are talking not about defective wheels. They acknowledge that predictable outcomes are common both for new or old wheels.

Below we are going to talk about some of the basic principles that make outcomes of spins predictable. This list does not seem to be complete. Bear in mind that revenues of professional gamblers depend on keeping certain mechanisms in secret. Therefore, you will not find any complete information.

However we should firstly discuss all the terms that might be necessary, as well as names of all structural components. A more detailed description of the roulette wheel is available in the article Everything about the Roulette Wheel Construction.

• Ball track: it is a track located at the top of the roulette wheel on which a ball is moving.
• Wheelhead: it is a rotating numbered fragment of the wheel.
• Pockets: they are numbered. A ball falls into one of them, which determines the outcome.
• Timing: it is a period of time that is necessary for a ball to move on the ball track.

## What Happens During a Spin?

When a dealer spins a ball, it is moving on the ball track, gradually slowing down, losing momentum, and falling into the wheelhead. Sometimes the ball bounces off a metal deflector and falls without bouncing. Sometimes it bounces across the whole roulette wheel. Sometimes it skips deflectors.

You can never predict exactly where the ball will fall, but it is not necessary to do this. You just need to roughly predict with the sufficient accuracy where the ball will fall in order to overcome the insignificant house edge. It is very easy to do this for some wheels. As for the other wheels, it may seem to be more difficult.

## Dominant Diamonds

Worn metal deflectors, arranged around the roulette wheel, seem to be the most visible signs. Virtually on each wheel the ball bounces off some diamonds more likely than others. Therefore, they are more worn than the others. You can notice this by taking a closer look at deflectors. They are called dominant diamonds, and their dominance can be caused by a combination of different factors, including:

• Worn ball tracks. Actually, even newly manufactured wheels have imperfect ball tracks.
• Wheel roughness. Even the slightest axial inclination may result in appearance of dominant diamonds. According to the official research of International governmental laboratories, imbalance of 1-2 millimeters leads to appearance of dominant diamonds.

You can hardly find a roulette wheel, which has no significant dominant diamonds. Dominant diamonds don’t appear randomly. They indicate patterns that can be used to predict the outcomes of spins.

## Timing

According to the logic, timings of various spins will differ. However in fact, timings are much more similar than we can predict, especially during the last spins. The biggest deviation of timings for the minimum and maximum ball speed does not exceed 0.3 seconds.

This means that if we knew, for example, that the ball speed was about 1.3 seconds per spin and the ball made 14 spins on the ball track, we would be able to easily calculate that the ball would require 18.2 seconds to fall from the trackball into the dominant diamond. To be sure, this does not occur constantly. This should just happen quite frequently.

Do you need to know the precise ball speed in order to calculate timing for the last 7 spins? It is not necessary if you have data on the first seven spins, and timings for the first and the last spins are almost equal. Taking into account this information, you can make a conclusion that a number, which will be located under the deflector when the ball bounces off it, can be easily determined. It is important to understand this fact.

## Chaotic Phase

The most unpredictable period of the spins occurs when the ball falls down into the bowl and bounces off. What can be done at this stage? Actually, you can do the same thing that Christian Kaisan used to do: he observed the numerous spins and viewed how the ball was bouncing after falling from the ball track. Let’s imagine that you have made 100 spins and noticed various options for its fall, for example:

• In 30 spins the ball bounced off the dominant diamond, falling into one of the 5-6 pockets located under the deflector, and stopped bouncing at once.
• In 15 spins the ball bounced off the dominant diamond and reached the next deflector, bouncing off it and jumping several times from one pocket to the other.
• In 25 spins the ball bounced off any defector, except for the dominant diamond.
• In 20 spins the ball skipped all diamonds, fell into pockets and bounced off chaotically. In 10 spins the ball fell down from the ball track, rotating on the wheelhead before it landed on any pocket.

Thus, we can notice that the behavior of a ball is completely unpredictable in 2-5 cases. However this is not important, because we still have 30 cases mentioned in the first case. It is absolutely possible to predict the outcome in them. It is just necessary to find a way to predict a number that will be located under the dominant diamond where the ball falls into this pocket. Such behavior of the ball provides us with a slight advantage over the house.

Thus, we cannot accurately predict winning numbers in 100 spins, even if we know where the ball will fall from the ball track. However there are 30 spins that allow us to do this with a fairly high degree of accuracy. And we do not take into account remaining 70 spins, because 30 spins will provide enough accuracy to overcome the house edge that is equal to 2.7% in European roulette and 5.26% in the American version.

## Neighbor Bets

Gamblers who are playing roulette using visual ballistics can determine the probability of coming up a certain number or at least a particular sector. This can be done in a few seconds between spinning a ball and pronouncing the famous phrase "No more bets!" by a dealer. This lasts for approximately 10 seconds. Therefore, professional gamblers tend to place neighbor bets.

Neighbor bets are used to stake on certain physical sectors of the roulette wheel. For example, you are playing European roulette and have come to a conclusion that ball should fall into the pocket numbered 11. So, you want to increase your chances of winning. You should pronounce "Bet 11-2-2!". This means that you want to stake on 11 and two adjacent numbers from the both sides, i.e.: 13-36-11-30-8. While placing neighbor bets, you may stake on 1-4 adjacent numbers.

## Is It Possible to Use Visual Ballistics while Playing Online Roulette?

Since visual ballistics is a physical but not mathematical system, we can assume that this system is not active on the Internet. After all, at online casinos the outcomes of spins are determined by the random number generator, which has nothing to do with the physical characteristics of the roulette wheel.

Unfortunately, you cannot use visual ballistics at live casinos. After all, it is based on the fact that you are allowed to place bets after spinning a ball. Thus, you have time to measure the wheel and ball speed. However you may place your bet at all reputable live casinos, including Betfair, Paddy Power, William Hill, Ladbrokes, and Bet365, only before a dealer spins a ball. Owners of all these major brands are well aware of the fact that visual ballistics and especially roulette computers are dangerous to them. Therefore, they do not take a risk. Perhaps there are some illegal live casinos that allow betting after spinning a ball, but we do not know about them.

## Why Is It Becoming More Difficult to Use Visual Ballistics?

There are several reasons why it has recently become more difficult to use visual ballistics:

• The wheel speed is becoming faster.
• There are very low table limits.
• Dealers stop accepting bets too early, i.e. almost immediately after spinning a ball. This fact does not allow predicting outcomes of spins.
• Traditional balls are replaced by lighter and more rapid PTFE balls.
• Modern roulette wheels are adjusted using computers. So, it is possible to remove even the smallest defects of bowls.
• There are wheels with pockets that have low separators. This means that a ball keeps jumping after bouncing off a deflector.

We want to try to provide some rules for the use of visual ballistics:

## 1. Practice

Practice makes perfect. If you want to play roulette using visual ballistics, you have to practice as much as possible. Consider Christian Kaisan as an example. He had observed and analyzed data for three years before he decided to start gambling.

## 2. How to receive information

To use visual ballistics efficiently, you should carefully study the construction of roulette wheels and differences between them. You should know what the weight of the wheel is, which material is used to manufacture balls, how a dealer spins a ball, and so on... To start gambling and using visual ballistics, it is necessary to know EVERY TINIEST DETAIL of the particular roulette wheel!

## 3. Use a layout

When you start mastering this technique, you will need to work with some tools, for example wristwatches, since it will be necessary to record the time of rotating wheelheads. To be sure, this is strictly prohibited in land-based casinos. For example, when Christian Kaisan tried to use his stopwatch, the administration was trying to expel him. He was blacklisted at many casinos, although at that time the technological tools were not officially banned. Therefore, he had to buy a few roulette wheels and practice at home.

## 4. Be careful

Taking into account that visual ballistics should bring a profit, you should be careful and avoid gambling too much at one and the same casino. Despite the fact that you don’t break any law, the legislation allows casinos to expel undesirable gamblers, i.e. any player who seems to be suspicious. The same fate is waiting for blackjack counters: the administration usually notices them and expels. There is only one explanation of this fact: casinos are not happy to invite those who always win.

## 5. Feel the roulette wheel

As soon as a certain period of training has passed, you may feel that you can never achieve perfection in visual ballistics. Keep in mind a quote of Christian Kaisan, who has described a recipe of his success in the following way: "Two-thirds of skills and one-third of the perception." You should not underestimate the sense of time.

Physical roulette strategies seem to be the only method that allows users to legally beat the house at roulette over the long run. From this point of view, it is considered to be the safest roulette strategy.

It is necessary to use flat bets, i.e. the bets whose sizes are equal in all spins. To be sure, you can use progressive bets, but it will be absolutely useless. You will have a higher advantage than traditional 2.7% of the house edge. And you can count on the long-term profit, instead of just good luck.

Only 40-50 individuals all over the world mastered visual ballistics. They really worked hard to succeed in mastering it. You should be aware that anyone can learn how to use it. However you should also know that it has become more difficult to overcome the security barriers due to the actively emerging modern technologies. If you want to try your luck using visual ballistics, you should be clear-headed and persistent.

In fact, this method seems to be somewhat outdated in the current era of high-tech technologies. Now players are trying to cheat with the help of computers with a high-level computational capacity, lasers, or radio equipment. In the future we want to publish an article that will deal with so-called roulette computers that can significantly simplify a visual ballisticians’ problem.

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